Sciatica is a common type of pain, affecting the sciatic nerve, a large nerve extending from the lower back down the back of each leg. Common symptoms of sciatica include: pain in the rear or leg that is worse when sitting; burning or tingling down the leg; weakness, numbness or difficulty moving the leg or foot; a constant pain on one side of the rear; shooting pain that makes it difficult to stand up.
Sciatica usually affects only one side of the lower body. Often, the pain extends from the lower back all the way through the back of the thigh and down through the leg. Depending on where the sciatic nerve is affected, the pain may also extend to the foot or toes. For some people, the pain from sciatica can be severe and debilitating. For others, the pain from sciatica might be infrequent and irritating, but has the potential to get worse. Seek immediate medical attention with any symptoms of progressive lower extremity weakness and/or loss of bladder or bowel control.
What Causes Sciatica?
Sciatica is caused by irritation of the root(s) of the lower lumbar and lumbosacral spine. Additional common causes of sciatica include lumbar spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal canal in the lower back), degenerative disc disease (breakdown of discs, which act as cushions between the vertebrae), Spondylolisthesis (a condition in which one vertebra slips forward over another one), and pregnancy. Other things that may make your back pain worse include being overweight, not exercising regularly, wearing high heels, or sleeping on a mattress that is too soft.
In diagnosing sciatica, a doctor will take your medical history and perform an examination of the back, hips, and legs in order to test for strength, flexibility, sensation, and reflexes. Other tests may include x-rays, MRI scans, CT scans, and nerve conduction studies to determine the health or disease of a nerve.
Treatment for sciatica focuses on relieving pressure and inflammation. Typical sciatica treatments include anti-inflammatory drugs such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen, oral steroids, or epidural steroid injections help to relieve inflammation; epidural steroid injections; steroids; physical therapy; and/or surgery may be warranted if the sciatic nerve pain is severe and has not been relieved with appropriate manual or medical treatments.